**Mathematics** is one subject that pervades life at any age and in any circumstance. Thus, its value goes beyond the classroom and the school. Mathematics as a school subject, therefore, must be learned comprehensively and with much depth.

The twin goals of mathematics in the basic education levels, K-10, are Critical Thinking and Problem Solving.

Critical thinking, according to Scriven and Paul (1987) is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skilfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.

On the other hand, according to Polya (1945 & 1962), mathematical problem solving is finding a way around a difficulty, around an obstacle, and finding a solution to a problem that is unknown.

These two goals are to be achieved with an organized and rigorous curriculum content, a well-defined set of high-level skills and processes, desirable values and attitudes, and appropriate tools, taking into account the different contexts of Filipino learners.

There are five content areas in the curriculum, as adopted from the framework prepared by MATHTED & SEI (2010): Numbers and Number Sense, Measurement, Geometry, Patterns and Algebra, and Probability and Statistics.

The specific skills and processes to be developed are: knowing and understanding; estimating, computing and solving; visualizing and modelling; representing and communicating; conjecturing, reasoning, proving and decision-making; and applying and connecting.

The following values and attitudes are to be honed as well: accuracy, creativity, objectivity, perseverance, and productivity

We recognize that the use of appropriate tools is necessary in teaching mathematics. These include: manipulative objects, measuring devices, calculators and computers, smart phones and tablet PCs, and the Internet.

We define context as a locale, situation, or set of conditions of Filipino learners that may influence their study and use of mathematics to develop critical thinking and problem solving skills. Contexts refer to beliefs, environment, language and culture that include traditions and practices, as well as the learner’s prior knowledge and experiences.

The framework is supported by the following underlying learning principles and theories: Experiential and Situated Learning, Reflective Learning, Constructivism, Cooperative Learning and Discovery and Inquiry-based Learning. The mathematics curriculum is grounded in these theories.

Experiential Learning as advocated by David Kolb is learning that occurs by making sense of direct everyday experiences. Experiential Learning theory defines learning as “the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. Knowledge results from the combination of grasping and transforming experience” (Kolb, 1984, p. 41). Situated Learning, theorized by Lave and Wenger, is learning in the same context in which concepts and theories are applied.

Reflective Learning refers to learning that is facilitated by reflective thinking. It is not enough that learners encounter real-life situations. Deeper learning occurs when learners are able to think about their experiences and process these, allowing them the opportunity to make sense of and derive meaning from their experiences.

Constructivism is the theory that argues that knowledge is constructed when the learner is able to draw ideas from his/her own experiences and connect them to new ideas.

Cooperative Learning puts premium on active learning achieved by working with fellow learners as they all engage in a shared task.

The mathematics curriculum allows for students to learn by asking relevant questions and discovering new ideas. Discovery Learning and Inquiry-based Learning (Bruner, 1961) support the idea that students learn when they make use of personal experiences to discover facts, relationships, and concepts.

### BRIEF COURSE DESCRIPTION

Mathematics from K-10 is a skills subject. By itself, it is all about quantities, shapes and figures, functions, logic, and reasoning. Mathematics is also a tool of science and a language complete with its own notations and symbols and “grammar” rules, with which concepts and ideas are effectively expressed.

The contents of mathematics include Numbers and Number Sense, Measurement, Geometry, Patterns & Algebra and Statistics and Probability

Numbers and Number Sense as a strand include concepts of numbers, properties, operations, estimation, and their applications.

Measurement as a strand includes the use of numbers and measures to describe, understand, and compare mathematical and concrete objects. It focuses on attributes such as length, mass and weight, capacity, time, money, and temperature, as well as applications involving perimeter, area, surface area, volume, and angle measure.

Geometry as a strand includes properties of two- and three-dimensional figures and their relationships, spatial visualization, reasoning, and geometric modelling and proofs.

Patterns and Algebra as a strand studies patterns, relationships, and changes among shapes and quantities. It includes the use of algebraic notations and symbols, equations, and most importantly, functions, to represent and analyze relationships

Statistics and Probability as a strand is all about developing skills in collecting and organizing data using charts, tables, and graphs; understanding, analyzing and interpreting data; dealing with uncertainty; and making predictions about outcomes.

The K to 10 Mathematics Curriculum provides a solid foundation for Mathematics at Grades 11 to 12. More importantly, it pro vides necessary concepts and life skills needed by Filipino learners as they proceed to the next stage in their life as learners and as citizens of the Philippines.

**LEARNING AREA STANDARD:** The learner demonstrates understanding and appreciation of key concepts and principles of mathematics as applied – using appropriate technology – in problem solving, critical thinking, communicating, reasoning, making connections, representations, and decisions in real life.

**KEY STAGE STANDARDS:**

**K – 3**– At the end of Grade 3, the learner demonstrates understanding and appreciation of key concepts and skills involving numbers and number sense (whole numbers up to 10,000 and the four fundamental operations including money, ordinal numbers up to 100th, basic concepts of fractions); measurement (time, length, mass, capacity, area of square and rectangle); geometry (2-dimensional and 3-dimensional objects, lines, symmetry, and tessellation); patterns and algebra (continuous and repeating patterns and number sentences); statistics and probability (data collection and representation in tables, pictographs and bar graphs and outcomes)as applied – using appropriate technology – in critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning, communicating, making connections, representations, and decisions in real life.**4 – 6**– At the end of Grade 6, the learner demonstrates understanding and appreciation of key concepts and skills involving numbers and number sense (whole numbers, number theory, fractions, decimals, ratio and proportion, percent, and integers);measurement (time, speed, perimeter, circumference and area of plane figures, volume and surface area of solid/space figures, temperature and meter reading); geometry (parallel and perpendicular lines, angles, triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, circles, and solid figures); patterns and algebra (continuous and repeating patterns, number sentences, sequences, and simple equations); statistics and probability (bar graphs, line graphs and pie graphs, simple experiment, and experimental probability) as applied -using appropriate technology – in critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning, communicating, making connections, representations, and decisions in real life.**7 – 10**– At the end of grade 10, the learner demonstrates understanding and appreciation of key concepts and skills involving numbers and number sense (sets and real numbers); measurement (conversion of units); patterns and algebra (linear equations and inequalities in one and two variables, linear functions, systems of linear equations, and inequalities in two variables, exponents and radicals, quadratic equations, inequalities, functions, polynomials, and polynomial equations and functions); geometry (polygons, axiomatic structure of geometry, triangle congruence, inequality and similarity, and basic trigonometry);statistics and probability (measures of central tendency, variability and position; combinatorics and probability) as applied – using appropriate technology – in critical thinking, problem solving, communicating, reasoning, making connections, representations, and decisions in real life.

**GRADE LEVEL STANDARDS:**

GRADE LEVEL |
GRADE LEVEL STANDARDS |
---|---|

10 000 000, order of operations, factors and multiples, fractions and decimals including money, ratio and proportion, percent); geometry (polygons, circles, solid figures); patterns and algebra (sequence and number sentences); measurement (time, circumference, area, volume, and temperature); and statistics and probability (tables, line graphs and experimental probability) as applied – using appropriate technology – in critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning, communicating, making connections, representations, and decisions in real life. | |

GRADE 6 |
The learner demonstrates understanding and appreciation of key concepts and skills involving numbers and number sense (divisibility, order of operations, fractions and decimals including money, ratio and proportion, percent, integers); geometry (plane and solid figures); patterns and algebra (sequence, expression, and equation); measurement (rate, speed, area, surface area, volume, and meter reading); and statistics and probability (tables, pie graphs, and experimental and theoretical probability) as applied – using appropriate technology – in critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning, communicating, making connections, representations, and decisions in real life. |

GRADE 7 |
The learner demonstrates understanding of key concepts and principles of numbers and number sense (sets and real number system); measurement (conversion of units of measurement);patterns and algebra (algebraic expressions and properties of real numbers as applied in linear equations and inequalities in one variable); geometry (sides and angles of polygons); and statistics and probability (data collection and presentation, and measures of central tendency and variability) as applied – using appropriate technology – in critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning, communicating, making connections, representations, and decisions in real life. |

GRADE 8 |
The learner demonstrates understanding of key concepts and principles of patterns and algebra (factors of polynomials, rational algebraic expressions, linear equations and inequalities in two variables, systems of linear equations and inequalities in two variables); geometry (axiomatic structure of geometry, triangle congruence, inequalities in a triangle, and parallel and perpendicular lines); and statistics and probability (probability of simple events) as applied – using appropriate technology – in critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning, communicating, making connections, representations, and decisions in real life. |

GRADE 9 |
The learner demonstrates understanding of key concepts and principles of patterns and algebra (quadratic equations and inequalities, quadratic functions, rational algebraic equations, variations, and radicals) and geometry (parallelograms and triangle similarities and basic concepts of trigonometry) as applied – using appropriate technology – in critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning, communicating, making connections, representations, and decisions in real life. |

GRADE 10 |
The learner demonstrates understanding of key concepts and principles of patterns and algebra (sequences, series, polynomials, polynomial equations, and polynomial functions); geometry (circles and coordinate geometry); and statistics and probability (combinatorics and probability, and measures of position) as applied – using appropriate technology – in critical thinking, problem solving, reasoning, communicating, making connections, representations, and decisions in real life. |

**Source:** DepED – K to 12 Curriculum Guide – MATHEMATICS