ENGLISH – (Grade 1 to Grade 10)

Posted in Uncategorized
March 10, 2022

K to 12 Curriculum Guide

ENGLISH – (Grade 1 to Grade 10)


Language is the basis of all communication and the primary instrument of thought. Thinking, learning, and language are interrelated. Language is governed by rules and systems (language conventions) which are used to explore and communicate meaning. It defines culture which is essential in understanding oneself (personal identity), forming interpersonal relationships (socialization), extending experiences, reflecting on thought and action, and contributing to a better society. Language, therefore, is central to the peoples’ intellectual, social and emotional development and has an essential role in all key learning areas.

Language is the foundation of all human relationships. All human relationships are established on the ability of people to communicate effectively with each other. Our thoughts, values and understandings are developed and expressed through language. This process allows students to understand better the world in which they live and contributes to the development of their personal perspectives of the global community. People use language to make sense of and bring order to their world. Therefore, proficiency in the language enables people to access, process and keep abreast of information, to engage with the wider and more diverse communities, and to learn about the role of language in their own lives, and in their own and other cultures.


The K-12 Language Arts and Multiliteracies Curriculum is anchored on the following language acquisition, learning, teaching and assessing principles. All languages are interrelated and interdependent. Facility in the first language (L1) strengthens and supports the learning of other languages (L2). Acquisition of sets of skills and implicit metalinguistic knowledge in one language (common underlying proficiency or CUP) provides the base for the development of both the first language (L1) and the second language (L2)2 . It follows that any expansion of CUP that takes place in one language will have a beneficial effect on the other language(s). This principle serves to explain why it becomes easier and easier to learn additional languages.

Language acquisition and learning is an active process that begins at birth and continues throughout life. It is continuous and recursive throughout students’ lives. Students enhance their language abilities by using what they know in new and more complex contexts and with increasing sophistication (spiral progression). They reflect on and use prior knowledge to extend and enhance their language and understanding. By learning and incorporating new language structures into their repertoire and using them in a variety of contexts, students develop language fluency and proficiency. Positive learning experiences in language-rich environments enable students to leave school with a desire to continue to extend their knowledge, skills and interests.

Learning requires meaning  We learn when we use what we know to understand what is new. Start with what the students know; use that to introduce new concepts. They use language to examine new experiences and knowledge in relation to their prior knowledge, experiences, and beliefs. They make connections, anticipate possibilities, reflect upon ideas, and determine courses of action.

Learners learn about language and how to use it effectively through their engagement with and study of texts. The term ‘text’ refers to any form of written (reading and writing), oral (listening and speaking) and visual communication involving language. The texts through which students learn about language are wide-ranging and varied, from brief conversations to lengthy and complex forms of writing. The study of specific texts is the means by which learners achieve the desired outcomes of language, rather than an end in itself. Learners learn to create texts of their own and to engage with texts produced by other people.

Successful language learning involves viewing, listening, speaking, reading and writing activities. Language learning should include a plethora of strategies and activities that helps students focus on both MEANING and ACCURACY.
Language learning involves recognizing, accepting, valuing and building on students’ existing language competence, including the use of non-standard forms of the language, and extending the range of language available to students. Through language learning, learners develop functional and critical literacy skills. They learn to control and understand the conventions of the target language that are valued and rewarded by society and to reflect on and critically analyze their own use of language and the language of others.

An effective language arts and multiliteracies curriculum satisfies the following principles.

  1. develops thinking and language through interactive learning;
  2. develops communicative competence and critical literacy;
  3. draws on literature in order to develop students’ understanding of their literary heritage;
  4. draws on informational texts and multimedia in order to build academic vocabulary and strong content knowledge;
  5. develops students’ oral language and literacy through appropriately challenging learning;
  6. emphasizes writing arguments, explanatory/informative texts and narratives;
  7. provides explicit skill instruction in reading and writing;
  8. builds on the language, experiences, knowledge and interests that students bring to school;
  9. nurtures students’ sense of their common ground in using language/s for communication as present or future global citizens to prepare them to participate in school and in civic life, and;
  10. assesses and reflects the students’ ability to interpret and/or communicate in the target language


The generation born after the year 1994 until 2004 is referred to as Generation Z. This is the first generation to be born with complete technology. They were born with PCs, mobile phones, gaming devices, MP3 players and the ubiquitous Internet. They do not know life without technology. Hence, they are often termed as digital natives and are extremely comfortable with technology. They can email, text and use computers without any problems. In addition, members of Generation Z can understand and master advancement in technology. Unfortunately, this reliance on technology and gadgets has had a negative effect on the members. They rather stay indoors and use their electronics than play outdoors and be active. They are leading a sedentary life that can result in health problems later on.

For them, social media platforms are a way to communicate with the outside world. They are not bothered about privacy and are willing to share intimate details about themselves with complete strangers. They have virtual friends and for them hanging out with friends means talking to them over the cell phones, emails and text messages. However, at the same time, this generation is considered to be creative and collaborative and will have a significant impact on the way companies work when they join the workforce.

Members of Generation Z are adept at multi-tasking. They can text, read, watch, talk and even eat simultaneously. However, this has also led to reduced attention span leading to what psychologists call acquired attention deficit disorder. This generation is unable to analyze complex data and information as they cannot focus for very long.

While we don’t know much about Gen Z yet…we know a lot about the environment they are growing up in. This highly diverse environment will make the grade schools of the next generation the most diverse ever. Higher levels of technology will make significant inroads in academics allowing for customized instruction, data mining of student histories to enable diagnostics and remediation or accelerated achievement opportunities.

Gen Z kids will grow up with a highly sophisticated media and computer environment and will be more Internet savvy and expert than their Gen Y forerunners.


The ultimate goal of the Language Arts and Multiliteracies Curriculum is to produce graduates who apply the language conventions, principles, strategies and skills in (1) interacting with others, (2) understanding and learning other content areas, and (3) fending for themselves in whatever field of endeavour they may engage in.

1.  Communicative Competence
Communicative Competence is a synthesis of knowledge of basic grammatical principles, knowledge of how language is used in social settings to perform communicative functions, and how knowledge of utterances and communicative functions can be combined according to the principles of discourse.

Communicative competence is classified into the following competencies.

  1. Grammatical/Linguistic Competence means the acquisition of phonological rules, morphological words, syntactic rules, semantic rules and lexical items.
  2. Sociolinguistic Competence refers to the learning of pragmatic aspect of various speech acts, namely, the cultural values, norms, and other sociocultural conventions in social contexts. They are the context and topic of discourse, the participant’s social status, sex, age, and other factors which influence styles and registers of speech. Since different situations call for different types of expressions as well as different beliefs, views, values, and attitudes, the development of sociolinguistic competence is essential for communicative social action.
  3. Discourse Competence is the knowledge of rules regarding the cohesion (grammatical links) and coherence (appropriate combination of communicative actions) of various types of discourse (oral and written). Sociolinguistic rules of use and rules of discourse are crucial in interpreting utterances for social meaning, particularly when the literal meaning of an utterance does not lead to the speaker’s intention easily.
  4. Strategic Competence is to DO with the knowledge of verbal and non-verbal strategies to compensate for breakdown such as self-correction and at the same time to enhance the effectiveness of communication such as recognizing discourse structure, activating background knowledge, contextual guessing, and tolerating ambiguity.

2. Multiliteracies

Multiliteracies (multi literacy practices) recognize that there are many kinds of literacy at work within our society. These include traditional literacy practices using texts as well as new literacy practices using texts of popular culture such as films. Social literacy encompasses how we communicate and exchange meaning in our society while professional literacy links with the notion of literacy for school of the workplace.

The curriculum aims to help learners acquire highly-developed literacy skills that enable them to understand that English language is the most widely used medium of communication in Trade and the Arts, Sciences, Mathematics, and in world economy. Furthermore, the curriculum aims to help learners understand that English language is a dynamic social process which responds to and reflects changing social conditions, and that English is inextricably involved with values, beliefs and ways of thinking about ourselves and the world we dwell in. Through multi-literacy skills, learners will be able to appreciate and be sensitive to sociocultural diversity and understand that the meaning of any form of communication depends on context, purpose and audience.


The world is now in the “Knowledge age” where the challenge of education is to prepare learners to deal with the challenges of the changing world. Students in this age must be prepared to compete in a global economy, understand and operate complex communication and information systems, and apply higher level thinking skills to make decisions and solve problems.

The Language Arts and Multiliteracies Curriculum (LAMC) addresses these needs. This is the rationale why Mother Tongue, Filipino and English follow a unified framework which allows easy transition from acquiring and learning one language to another.

The curriculum has five (5) components. Each component is essential to the learners’ ability to communicate effectively in a language leading them to achieve communicative competence and multiliteracies in the Mother Tongue, Filipino and English. The diagram on page 2 shows that the heart and core of LAMC is making meaning through language and aims to develop graduates who are communicatively competent and multiliterates.

  • Component 1 illustrates learning processes that will effect acquisition and learning of the language. It explains the HOW of language learning and therefore serves as guiding principles for language teaching.
  • Component 2 describes knowledge and skill areas which are essential to effective language use (understanding of cultures, understanding language, processes and strategies) which will be developed through language arts (macro-skills).
  • Component 3 shows the interdependence and interrelationships of the macro-skills of the language (listening, speaking and viewing; reading, viewing and responding; writing and representing) and the development of thinking skills (critical thinking, creative thinking and metacognition) allowing students to make meaning through language.
  • Component 4 explains the holistic assessment of the Language Arts and Literacy Curriculum which serves as feedback of its effectiveness to students, teachers, school administrators, and curriculum developers.

COMPONENT 1: Language Learning Process

For effective language acquisition and learning to take place, language teachers must be guided by the six (6) language teaching principles. These principles explain the natural process of language development.

  1. Spiral Progression – Skills, grammatical items, structures and various types of texts will be taught, revised and revisited at increasing levels of difficulty and sophistication. This will allow students to progress from the foundational level to higher levels of language use.
  2. Interaction – Language learning will be situated in the context of communication (oral and written). Activities that simulate real-life situations of varying language demands (purposes, topics, and audiences) will be employed to help students interact with others thereby improve their socialization skills.
  3. Integration – The areas of language learning – the receptive skills, the productive skills, and grammar and vocabulary will be taught in an integrated way, together with the use of relevant print and non-print resources, to provide multiple perspectives and meaningful connections. Integration may come in different types either implicitly or explicitly (skills, content, theme, topic, and values integration).
  4. Learner-Centeredness – Learners are at the center of the teaching-learning process. Teaching will be differentiated according to students’ needs, abilities and interests. Effective pedagogies will be used to engage them and to strengthen their language development.
  5. Contextualization –  Learning tasks and activities will be designed for learners to acquire the language in authentic and meaningful contexts of use. For example, lessons will be planned around learning outcomes, a theme, or a type of text to help learners use related language skills, grammatical items/structures and vocabulary appropriately in spoken and written language to suit the purpose, audience, context and culture. Learning points will be reinforced through explicit instruction and related follow-up practice.
  6. Construction – Making meaning is the heart of language learning and use. Learning tasks and activities will be designed for learners in such a way that they will have time to reflect on and respond to ideas and information. Learners will be provided with sufficient scaffolding so that they will be able to reach their full cognitive, affective, and psychomotor potentials and become independent learners who are good consumers and constructors of meaning.

COMPONENT 2: Effective Language Use

There are three major applications of the macro-skills of the language (Understanding of Cultures; Understanding Language; and Processes and Strategies). They are described as the knowledge and skill areas which are essential to effective language use demonstrated through the language macro-skills.

  1. UNDERSTANDING CULTURES. Learning language through text types and literary appreciation exposes learners to different cultures of the world, including one’s culture. Learners develop sociolinguistic and sociocultural understandings and apply them to their use of the language (Mother Tongue, Filipino, and English). Sociolinguistic understanding refers to appropriate language use. It is defined in this document as taking into account the social significance of linguistic forms and the linguistic implications of social facts. Language is a complex social practice that reflects and reinforces shared understandings about appropriate actions, values, beliefs and attitudes within a community. These shared understandings determine not only what is communicated and when and how it is communicated, but also who does the communicating. These collectively constitute the sociolinguistic features of language. Sociocultural understanding refers to knowing about the language speaking communities. It means taking into account the non-linguistic features in the life of a society. Learners broaden their frame of reference beyond their own social and cultural experiences. They gain insights into different values and belief systems and acknowledge the cultural contexts which underpin them. They make sense of the social fabric of the target language community. They understand that the natural and physical environments – as well as the social, economic, historical and political environments – influence the language speaking groups and their cultural traditions.
  2. UNDERSTANDING LANGUAGE. Learners apply their knowledge of the system of the language to assist them to make meaning and to create meaning. They come to recognize the patterns and rules of the language which emerge as they interact with a plethora of texts (literary and informational) to make meaning. They apply this knowledge and understanding to create their own spoken, written and visual texts. Differences in language systems are expressed in a variety of ways: for example, in grammatical differentiations, variations in word order, word selection, or general stylistic variations in texts. By comparing the system of the language with the systems of other languages, students understand that each language is different, but has identifiable patterns within its own system.
  3. PROCESS AND STRATEGIES. Learners select from a repertoire of processes and strategies by reflecting on their understanding of the way language works for a variety of purposes in a range of contexts. They deliberate on how they use language and apply different language strategies, depending on their purpose, context and audience. They use language as a way of coming to grips with new ideas, resolving difficulties or solving problems. They use strategies such as brainstorming and discussion as a way of developing ideas. They experiment, take risks and make approximations with language as a way of developing their language skills. They clarify what they need to know when seeking information for particular purposes. They use key-word searches and their understanding of the conventions of informational texts such as tables of contents, headings, indexes, forewords and glossaries as aids in locating information. They assess the usefulness of information for particular purposes. They treat information and ideas critically and evaluate information in terms of its reliability and currency. They make notes and graphic representations of information and combine information from different sources into a coherent whole by summarizing, comparing and synthesizing.Learners reflect on ethical considerations in the use of ideas and information. They recognize the importance of attributing sources of ideas and information, and of presenting or representing ideas and information in ways which are not misleading. They use quotation and sourcing conventions appropriately. They take into account the possible effects of and responses to the presentation of ideas and information.

COMPONENT 3: Making Meaning through Language

Language is the major instrument in communication (oral and written) and the heart of which is the exchange of meaning. Language learning should focus on guiding students make meaning through language for different purposes on a range of topics and with a variety of audiences. Students must be able to adapt to various situations where communication demands greatly vary.

The skills, grammatical items, structures and various types of texts will be taught, and revisited at increasing levels of difficulty and sophistication. This design allows students to progress from the foundational level to higher levels of language use.

The Language Arts and Multiliteracies Curriculum (LAMC) is composed of five (5) intricately intertwined and integrated sub-strands (listening, speaking, reading, writing, and viewing) that serve as building blocks for understanding and creation of meaning and for effective communication across curricula (Matrix 1).

The revised curriculum re-organizes the Integrated Language Arts Curriculum according to the content standards that must be met by all students at the end of basic education. This is not inconsistent with the proposed 5 sub-strands of the Language Arts and Multiliteracies Curriculum (LAMC) but fleshes out the areas that children need to learn and that teachers need to teach in greater detail. Below is the matrix that presents the spread and alignment of the language and literacy domains with the 5 sub-strands.

Coherence with the Basic Education Program Goals

  1. The K-12 languages curriculum ensures that processes and products of learning actively foster and contribute to the achievement of the basic education program goals.
  2. Competencies are spiraled across the curriculum and year levels. Upper level courses will focus on writing, comprehension and study strategies.
  3. Content includes print and electronic texts that are age, context and culture appropriate.

COMPONENT 4: Holistic Assessment

Assessment is an important aspect of learning and teaching. It should be effectively used to support the holistic development of our pupils. Our assessment practices should go beyond summative evaluation and move towards a more holistic approach.

Holistic assessment refers to the ongoing gathering of information on different facets of a child from various sources, with the aim of providing qualitative and quantitative feedback to support and guide the child’s development. Holistic assessment informs our teachers of their teaching practices and guides them in the design and delivery of student learning. It will also enable parents to support their children’s development and growth.

Characteristics of Assessment

  1. Proximity to actual language use and performance – Assessment procedures should be based on activities that have authentic communicative function rather than ones with little or no intrinsic communicative value. These activities are based on actual performance in authentic situations which the learner is likely to encounter in his or her daily life.
  2. . A holistic view of language – Assessment procedures are based on the notion that the interrelationships among the various aspects of language, such as phonology, grammar, and vocabulary, among others cannot be ignored. Also the four skills of language-listening, speaking, reading, and writing-are seen to be parts of a structurally integrated whole. Assessment approaches should be used for communication and self-expression. Assessment also takes into account the whole learner and his or her social,
    academic, and physical context.
  3. . An integrative view of learning – Assessment attempts to capture the learner’s total array of skills and abilities. It measures language proficiency in the context of specific subject matter. Assessment procedures are based on the idea that various aspects of a learner’s life, both academic and personal, are integral to the development of language proficiency and cannot be ignored. These dimensions include not only processes such as acquiring and integrating knowledge, extending and refining knowledge, and using knowledge meaningfully, but also issues such as varying student attitudes towards learning.
  4. Developmental appropriateness – Assessment procedures set expectations that are appropriate within the cognitive, social, and academic development of the learner. This characteristic of assessment makes it particularly valuable for second language learners who come from culturally diverse backgrounds and who may have atypical educational experiences.
  5. Multiple referencing – Assessment entails obtaining information about the learner from numerous sources and through various means. For students, assessment should allow them to see their own accomplishments in terms that they understand and, consequently, allows them to assume responsibility for their learning. Assessment should allow parents to share in the educational process, and offers them a clear insight into what their children are doing in school. For teachers, the primary advantage of assessment is that it provides data on their students and their classroom for educational decision-making. In addition, it reports the success of the curriculum and provides teachers with a framework for organizing student’s works

Source: K to 12 Curriculum Guide – ENGLISH

Share this article

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.