March 13, 2022

Science education aims to develop scientific literacy among learners that will prepare them to be informed and participative citizens who are able to make judgments and decisions regarding applications of scientific knowledge that may have social, health, or environmental impacts.

The science curriculum recognizes the place of science and technology in everyday human affairs. It integrates science and technology in the social, economic, personal and ethical aspects of life. The science curriculum promotes a strong link between science and technology, including indigenous technology, thus preserving our country’s cultural heritage.

The K to 12 science curriculum will provide learners with a repertoire of competencies important in the world of work and in a knowledge-based society. It envisions the development of scientifically, technologically, and environmentally literate and productive members of society who are critical problem solvers, responsible stewards of nature, innovative and creative citizens, informed decision makers, and effective communicators.

This curriculum is designed around the three domains of learning science: understanding and applying scientific knowledge in local setting as well as global context whenever possible, performing scientific processes and skills, and developing and demonstrating scientific attitudes and values. The acquisition of these domains is facilitated using the following approaches: multi/interdisciplinary approach, science-technology-society approach, contextual learning, problem/issue-based learning, and inquiry-based approach. The approaches are based on sound educational pedagogy namely, constructivism, social cognition learning model, learning style theory, and brain-based learning.

Science content and science processes are intertwined in the K to 12 Curriculum. Without the content, learners will have difficulty utilizing science process skills since these processes are best learned in context. Organizing the curriculum around situations and problems that challenge and arouse learners’ curiosity motivates them to learn and appreciate science as relevant and useful. Rather than relying solely on textbooks, varied hands-on, minds-on, and hearts-on activities will be used to develop learners’ interest and let them become active learners.

As a whole, the K to 12 science curriculum is learner-centered and inquiry-based, emphasizing the use of evidence in constructing explanations. Concepts and skills in Life Sciences, Physics, Chemistry, and Earth Sciences are presented with increasing levels of complexity from one grade level to another in spiral progression, thus paving the way to a deeper understanding of core concepts. The integration across science topics and other disciplines will lead to a meaningful understanding of concepts and its application to real-life situations.


The learners demonstrate understanding of basic science concepts and application of science-inquiry skills. They exhibit scientific attitudes and values to solve problems critically, innovate beneficial products, protect the environment and conserve resources, enhance the integrity and wellness of people, make informed decisions, and engage in discussions of relevant issues that involve science, technology, and environment.


  • K–3 – At the end of Grade 3, the learners should have acquired healthful habits and have developed curiosity about self and their environment using basic process skills of observing, communicating, comparing, classifying, measuring, inferring and predicting. This curiosity will help learners value science as an important tool in helping them continue to explore their natural and physical environment. This should also include developing scientific knowledge or concepts
  • 4–6 – At the end of Grade 6, the learners should have developed the essential skills of scientific inquiry – designing simple investigations, using appropriate procedure, materials and tools to gather evidence, observing patterns, determining relationships, drawing conclusions based on evidence, and communicating ideas in varied ways to make meaning of the observations and/or changes that occur in the environment. The content and skills learned will be applied to maintain good health, ensure the protection and improvement of the environment, and practice safety measures
  • 7–10 – At the end of Grade 10, the learners should have developed scientific, technological, and environmental literacy and can make that would lead to rational choices on issues confronting them. Having been exposed to scientific investigations related to real life, they should recognize that the central feature of an investigation is that if one variable is changed (while controlling all others), the effect of the change on another variable can be measured. The context of the investigation can be problems at the local or national level to allow them to communicate with learners in other parts of the Philippines or even from other countries using appropriate technology.The learners should demonstrate an understanding of science concepts and apply science inquiry skills in addressing real-world problems through scientific investigations.
  • 11-12 – At the end of Grade 12, the learners should have gained skills in obtaining scientific and technological information from varied sources about global issues that have impact on the country. They should have acquired scientific attitudes that will allow them to innovate and/or create products useful to the community or country. They should be able to process information to get relevant data for a problem at hand. In addition, learners should have made plans related to their interests and expertise, with consideration for the needs of their community and the country — to pursue either employment, entrepreneurship, or higher education.
GRADE/LEVEL Grade-Level Standards
Kindergarten The learners will demonstrate an emerging understanding of the parts of their body and their general functions; plants, animals and varied materials in their environment and their observable characteristics; general weather conditions and how these influence what they wear; and other things in their environment.

Understanding of their bodies and what is around them is acquired through exploration, questioning, and careful observation as they infer patterns, similarities, and differences that will allow them to make sound conclusions.

Grade 1 At the end of Grade 1, learners will use their senses to locate and describe the external parts of their body; to identify, external parts of animals and plants; to tell the shape, color, texture, taste, and size of things around them; to describe similarities and differences given two objects; to differentiate sounds produced by animals, vehicles cars, and musical instruments; to illustrate how things move; to, describe the weather and what to do in different situations; to use appropriate terms or vocabulary to describe these features; to collect, sort, count, draw, take things apart, or make something out of the things; to practice healthy habits (e.g., washing hands properly, choosing nutritious food) and safety measures (e.g., helping to clean or pack away toys, asking questions and giving simple answers/ descriptions to probing questions).
Grade 2 At the end of Grade 2, learners will use their senses to explore and describe the functions of their senses, compare two or more objects and using two or more properties , sort things in different ways and give a reason for doing so, describe the kind of weather or certain events in the home or school and express how these are affecting them, do simple  measurements of length, tell why some things around them are important , decide if what they do is safe or dangerous; give suggestions on how to prevent accidents at home, practice electricity, water, and paper conservation, help take care of pets or of plants , and tell short stories about what they do, what they have seen, or what they feel.
Grade 3 At the end of Grade 3, learners can describe the functions of the different parts of the body and things that make up their surroundings — rocks and soil, plants and animals, the Sun, Moon and stars.

They can also classify these things as solid, liquid or gas. They can describe how objects move and what makes them move. They can also identify sources and describe uses of light, heat, sound, and electricity.

Learners can describe changes in the conditions of their surroundings. These would lead learners to become more curious about their surroundings, appreciate nature, and practice health and safety measures.

Grade 4 At the end of Grade 4, learners can investigate changes in some observable properties of materials when mixed with other materials or when force is applied on them.

They can identify materials that do not decay and use this knowledge to help minimize waste at home, school, and in the community.

Learners can describe the functions of the different internal parts of the body in order to practice ways to maintain good health.

They can classify plants and animals according to where they live and observe interactions among living things and their environment. They can infer that plants and animals have traits that help them survive in their environment.

Learners can investigate the effects of push or pull on the size, shape, and movement of an object.

Learners can investigate which type of soil is best for certain plants and infer the importance of water in daily activities.

They learned about what makes up weather and apply their knowledge of weather conditions in making decisions for the day. They can infer the importance of the Sun to life on Earth.

Grade 5 At the end of Grade 5, learners can decide whether materials are safe and useful by investigating about some of their properties.

They can infer that new materials may form when there are changes in properties due to certain conditions.

Learners have developed healthful and hygienic practices related to the reproductive system after describing changes that accompany puberty.

They can compare different modes of reproduction among plant and animal groups and conduct an investigation on pollination.

They have become aware of the importance of estuaries and intertidal zones and help in their preservation.

Learners can describe the movement of objects in terms of distance and time travelled.

Learners recognize that different materials react differently with heat, light, and sound.

They can relate these abilities of materials to their specific uses. Learners can describe the changes that earth materials undergo.

They can make emergency plans with their families in preparation for typhoons.

They can observe patterns in the natural events by observing the appearance of the Moon.

Grade 6 At the end of Grade 6, learners recognize that when mixed together, materials may not form new ones thus these materials may be recovered using different separation techniques.

They can prepare useful mixtures such as food, drinks and herbal medicines.

Learners understand how the different organ systems of the human body work together.

They can classify plants based on reproductive structures, and animals based on the presence or lack of backbone.

They can design and conduct an investigation on plant propagation.

They can describe larger ecosystems such as rainforests, coral reefs, and mangrove swamps.

Learners can infer that friction and gravity affect how people and objects move.

They have found out that heat, light, sound, electricity, and motion studied earlier are forms of energy and these undergo transformation.

Learners can describe what happens during earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and demonstrate what to do when they occur.

They can infer that the weather follows a pattern in the course of a year.

They have learned about the solar system, with emphasis on the motions of the Earth as prerequisite to the study of seasons in another grade level.

Grade 7 At the end of Grade 7, learners can distinguish mixtures from substances through semi-guided investigations.

They realize the importance of air testing when conducting investigations.

After studying how organ systems work together in plants and animals in the lower grade levels, learners can use a microscope when observing very small organisms and structures.

They recognize that living things are organized into different levels:
Cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms. These organisms comprise populations and communities, which interact with non-living things in ecosystems.

Learners can describe the motion of objects in terms of distance and speed, and represent this in tables, graphs, charts, and equations. They can describe how various forms of energy travel through different mediums.

Learners describe what makes up the Philippines as a whole and the resources found in the archipelago. They can explain the occurrence of breezes, monsoons, and ITCZ, and how these weather systems affect people. They can explain why seasons change and demonstrate how eclipses occur.

Grade 8 At the end of Grade 8, learners can describe the factors that affect the motion of an object based on the Laws of Motion. They can differentiate the concept of work as used in science and in layman’s language. They know the factors that affect the transfer of energy, such as temperature difference, and the type (solid, liquid, or gas) of the medium.

Learners can explain how active faults generate earthquakes and how tropical cyclones originate from warm ocean waters. They recognize other members of the solar system.

Learners can explain the behaviour of matter in terms of the particles it is made of. They recognize that ingredients in food and medical products are made up of these particles and are absorbed by the body in the form of ions.

Learners recognize reproduction as a process of cell division resulting in growth of organisms. They have delved deeper into the process of digestion as studied in the lower grades, giving emphasis on proper nutrition for overall wellness. They can participate in activities that protect and conserve economically important species used for food.

Grade 9 At the end of Grade 9, learners have gained a a deeper understanding of the digestive, respiratory, and circulatory systems to promote overall health. They have become familiar with some technologies that introduce desired traits in economically important plants and animals.

Learners can explain how new materials are formed when atoms are rearranged. They recognize that a wide variety of useful compounds may arise from such rearrangements.

Learners can identify volcanoes and distinguish between active and inactive ones. They can explain how energy from volcanoes may be tapped for human use. They are familiar with climatic phenomena that occur on a global scale. They can explain why certain constellations can be seen only at certain times of the year.

Learners can predict the outcomes of interactions among objects in real life applying the laws of conservation of energy and momentum.

Grade 10 At the end of Grade 10, learners realize that volcanoes and earthquakes occur in the same places in the world and that these are related to plate boundaries. They can demonstrate ways to ensure safety and reduce damage during earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions.

Learners can explain the factors affecting the balance and stability of an object to help them practice appropriate positions and movements to achieve efficiency and safety such as in sports and dancing. They can analyze situations in which energy is harnessed for human use whereby heat is released, affecting the physical and biological components of the environment.

Learners will have completed the study of the entire organism with their deeper study of the excretory and reproductive systems. They can explain in greater detail how genetic information is passed from parents to offspring, and how diversity of species increases the probability of adaptation and survival in changing environments.

Learners can explain the importance of controlling the conditions under which a chemical reaction occurs. They recognize that cells and tissues of the human body are made up of water, a few kinds of ions, and biomolecules. These biomolecules may also be found in the food they eat.

Source: DepED – K to 12 Curriculum Guide

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